Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)

Native to the temperate forests of north-central to northeastern North America, this deciduous pine species is the tallest tree across the entirety of North America, able to grow past 200 ft (61 m). However, exploitative logging throughout the 18th to 20th centuries stunted growth, with only 1% of old-growth forests remaining to this day. These historical forests may be home to trees over 500 years old, though mature trees are usually between 200-250 years old. 


Its leaves are bundles of five long and flexible needles with seed cones that release slim winged seeds into the wind for dispersal. Across forests, swamps, and woodlands, these pines provide nesting habitats for cavity-nesting birds, serve as caterpillar hosts for native moths, and their seeds serve as food for songbirds and small mammals. The Haudenosaunee Confederacy, made up of five indigenous tribes throughout what is now the Northeastern US, holds the Eastern white pine, “the tree of the Great Long Leaves,” as the Tree of Peace.